Gaskin Museum of Marine Life - Bay of Fundy/Grand Manan Island
  • Seaweeds or Algae
Seaweeds belong to a diverse range of marine plants.  The following checklist is complex but there are a few seaweeds that you may be able to identify easily and are also an important part of the Grand Manan economy.  These include:
  • Dulse (Palmaria palmata)
  • Rock Weed or Knotted Wrack(Ascophyllum nodosum)
  • Laver or Nori (Porphyra)
  • Irish Moss (Chondrus crispus)
  • Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca)
  • Kelp (Laminaria longicruris)
  • Alaria (Alaria esculenta)
Checklist of Seaweeds (Algae) including macroscopic and microscopic, unicellular and multicellular varieties

This checklist is complied from:

  • "A checklist of marine fauna and flora of the Bay of Fundy" by L.E. Linkletter, E.I. Lord and M.J. Dadswell.  Published by the Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, NB.  1977.
  • "A field guide to the Atlantic Seashore from the Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras"  by Kenneth Gosner.  A Peterson Field Guide.  Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston.  1978
The checklist contains scientific names and common names (where available - not all species have common names).  Please note that the classification system used here is not necessarily the most up-to-date but was used in the checklists referenced.  Classifications systems do differ and the classification of this group is in the midst of a revolution.  The term "algae" is retained as a category of convenience for these various, distantly related groups.  Common names of the algae are often simply descriptive and may be used for a number of algae with similar forms such as "filamentous green alga" or "crustose".  To further complicate things scientific names are also revised from time to time and the ones used here may not correspond with up-to-date usage.

The major changes are with unicellular organisms (although some do occur in colonies).  Some of the more recent systems have Blue-green algae (or more correctly bacteria) classified in their own phylum Cyanobacteria; Diatoms have been removed from the division Chlorophyta and placed in Phylum Baccillariophyta or Chrysophyta; Dinoflagellates in Phylum Dinoflagellata or Pyrrophyta.  Their are also other plant-like protists including Silicoflagellates (Phylum Chrysophyta), Coccolithophids (Phylum Haplophyta), Crytomonads (Phylum Crytophyta) the latter two have not been included in this checklist.  Another group of protozoans that are animal-like protists including Foraminiferans (Phylum Foraminifera), Radiolarians (Phylum Polycystina) and Ciliates ( Phylum Ciliophora) are also not included.

Reclassification is also occurring in some macroscopic groups including the red and brown seaweeds which are now considered by many evolutionary biologist to form distinct kingdoms (or phyla) of organisms, on par with the green plants, fungi and animals.

Thanks to Stephen Clayden, Botany Curator, New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, New Brunswick, for assistance with the classification system.

Phylum - Algae
Division - Cyanophyta (BLUE-GREEN ALGAE/BACTERIA) (more recently Phylum Cyanobacteria)
Class - Cyanophyceae
Order Chamaesiphonales

Family - Dermocarpaseae
Dermocarpa prasina Bornet and Thuret
Order - Pleurocapsales
Family - Pleurocapsacese
Pleurocopsa fuliginoso Hauck

Family - Hyellaceae
Hyella caespitoso Bornet and Flahault

Order - Nostocales
Family - Oscillatoriaceae
Lyngbya aestuarii Gomont
Oscillatoria laetevirens Gomont
O. nigroviridis Gomont
Spirulina subsalsa Gomont

Family - Noatacaceae
Anaboena variabilis Bornet and Flahault
Nodularia harveyana Bornet and Flahault

Family - Rivuiariaceae
Calothrix confervicola Bornet and Flahault (Crustose Algae - blackish)
Rivularia atra Bornet and Flahault

Division - Rhodophyta (RED ALGAE) (may be reclassified as its own Phylum)
Class - Rhodophyceae
Order - Gigartinales
Family - Cruoriaceae
Petrocelis cruenta Agardh (Crustose Algae)

Family - Bhadophyllidaceae
Cystoclonium purpureum Batters (Brushy Red Weed)
Rhodophyllis veprecula cirrhata Harvey (Frayed Weed)
R. veprecula Agardh (Frayed Weed)

Family - Phyllophuraceae
Ahnfeltia plicata Fries (Wire Weed)

Family - Cigartinacese
Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Irish Moss)
Gigartina mammilosa Agardh (Tufted Red Weed)
G. stellata Batters (Tufted Red Weed)

Order - Cryptanemiales
Family - Hildenbrandiaceae
Hildenbrandia rosea Kuitzing (Crustose Algae)
H. prototypus Nardo (Crustose Algae)

Family - Corallinaceae
Corallina officinalis Linnacus (Coral Weed)
Lithothamnion polymorphum Aresob (Coral Weed)
Melobesia lajolisii Rosanoff (Coral Weed)

Family - Dumontiaceae
 Dumontia incrassata Lamouroux (Dumont's Red Weed)

Family - Polyideaceae
Polyides rotundus Greville (Twig Weed)

Family - Kallymeniaceae
Euthora cristata Agardh (Lacy Red Weed)

Family - Choreocolacaceae
Choreocolax polysiphoniae Reinsch

Order - Rhodymeniales
Family - Rhodymeniaceae
Rhodyrnenia palmata Greville or Palmaria palmata (Dulse)
Halosaccion ramentaceus var. gladiatum Eaton
H. ramentaceus Agardh
Order - Ceramiales
Family - Ceramiaceae
 Callithamnion pylasaei Montaqne (Filamentaous Seaweed)
 C. rothii Lyngbye (Filamentaous Seaweed)
 Ceramium rubrum Agardh (Banded Weed)
 Plumaria elegans Schmitz (Red Fern)
 Ptilota elegans Bonnemaison (Red Fern)
 P. serrate Kuetzing (Red Fern)

Family - Delesseriaceae
Delesseria sinuosa Lamouroux
D. alata
Phycodrys rubens Batters (Sea Oak)

Family - Rhodomelaceae
 Polysiphonia lanosa Tandy (Tubed Weeds, epiphytic on Ascophyllum nodosum)
 P. urceoslata Greville (Tubed Weeds)
 P. fastigiata Greville (Tubed Weeds)
 Rhodomela confervoides Silva (Tubed Weeds)

Order - Bangiales
Family - Bangiaceae
 Bangia fuscopurpurea Lyngbye (Filamentaous Seaweed)
 Porphyra umbilicalis Agardh (Laver or nori)
 P. miniata Ayardh (Laver or nori)
 P. laciniata Agardh (Laver or nori)

Division - Xanthophyta (YELLOW-GREEN ALGAE)
Class - Xanthophyceae
Order - Vaucheriales
Family - Vaucheriaceae
Vaucheria thuretii Woronin (Filamentous/Crustose Algae - dull green)

Division - Phaeophyta (BROWN ALGAE)  (may be reclassified as its own Phylum)
Class - Phaeophyceae
Order - Ectocarpales
Family - Ectocarpaceae
Ectocarpus confervoides LeJolis (Filamentous Seaweed)
E. littoralis Lyngbye (Filamentous Seaweed)
Pilayella littoralis Kjellman (Filamentous Seaweed)

Family - Ralfsiaceae
Ralfsia verrucosa Agardh (Crustose Algae - olive green to blackish)
R. deusta J. Agardh

Family - Elachistaceae
Elachista fucicola Areschoug (Filamentous Seaweed)

Family - Corynophlaeaceae
Leathesia difformis Areschoug (Sea Potato)

Family - Chordariaceae
Chordaria flagelliforrnis Agardh (Black Whip Weed)

Order - Dictyosiphonales
Family - Dictyosiphonaceae
Dictyosiphon hippuroides Areschoug (False Sour Weed)
D. foeniculaceus Greville (False Sour Weed)
Order - Scytosiphonales
Family - Scytosiphonaceae
Scytosiphon lomentaria Link (Sausage Weed)
Petalonia fascia Kuntze (Ribbon Weed)
Order - Desmarestiales
Family - Desmarestiaceae
Desmarestia viridis Lamouroux (Soft Sour Weed)
D. aculeata Lamouroux (Spiny Sour Weed)
Order - Laminariales
Family - Chordaceae
Chorda tomentosa Lyngbye (Smooth Cord Weed)
C. filurn Stackhouse (Smooth Cord Weed)

Family - Laminariaoeae
Laminaria longicrurus De La Pylaie (Hollow-stemmed Kelp)
L. saccharina Lamouroux (Kelp)
L. digitata Lamouroux (Horsetail Kelp)
Saccorhiza dermatodea De La Pylaie (Kelp)
Agarurn cribrosum Bory (Sea Colander)

Family - Alariaceae
Alaria esculenta Greville (Edible Kelp)
A. osculenta latifolia Post and Rupr (Edible Kelp)
Order - Fucales
Family - Fucaceae (Rockweeds)
Ascophyllum nodosum LeJolie (Knotted Wrack)
Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus (Bladder Wrack)
F. spiralis Linnaeus (Bladder Wrack)
F. edentatus De La Pylaie (Bladder Wrack)
F. evanescens Agardh (Bladder Wrack)
F. furcatus Aqardh (Bladder Wrack)

Division - Chlorophyta (GREEN ALGAE)
Class - Chlorophyceae
Order - Chlorococcales
Family - Endosphaeraceas
Gomontia polyrhiza Bronet and Flahault
Order - Prasiolales
Family - Prasiolaceae
Prasiola stipitata Suhr (Crustose Algae - blackish green)
Order - Ulotrichales
Family - Ulotrichaceae
Ulothrix flacca Thuret (Filamentous Seaweed)
U. implexa Kuetzing (Filamentous Seaweed)
U. collabens Thuret (Filamentous Seaweed)

Family - Monostromataceae
Monostroma blytii (Sea Lettuce)
M. fuscum blytii Collins (Sea Lettuce)
M. grevillei Wittrock (Sea Lettuce)

Family - Ulvaceae
Enteromorpha prolifera Agardh (Hollow Green Weeds)
E. linza Agardh (Hollow Green Weeds)
E. intestinalis Link (Hollow Green Weeds)
E. micrococca Kuetzing (Hollow Green Weeds)
E. percursa Aqardh (Hollow Green Weeds)
E. crinita Agardh (Hollow Green Weeds)
E. compressa subsimplex Agardh (Hollow Green Weeds)
E. minima Naegeli (Hollow Green Weeds)
Ulva rigida Thuret (Sea Lettuce)
U. lactuca Linnaeus (Sea Lettuce)

Order - Chaetophorales
Family - Chaetophoraoeae
Entocladia viridis Reinke
Order - Acrosiphoniales
Family - Acrosiphoniaceae
Spongomorpha areta (Filamentous Seaweed)
S. spinescens Kuetzing (Filamentous Seaweed)
Order - Cladophorales
Family - Cladophoraceae
Chaetomorpha melagonium Kuetzing (Filamentous Seaweed)
C. melagonium rupincola Kjellman (Filamentous Seaweed)
Caerea linum Collins (Filamentous Seaweed)
Cladophora sericea Kuetzing (Filamentous Seaweed)
C. arcta (Dillwyn) (Filamentous Seaweed)
C. laetevirens Kuetzing (Filamentous Seaweed)
C. rupestris Kuetzing (Filamentous Seaweed)
C. gracilis expansa Farlow (Filamentous Seaweed)
C. flavescens Kuetzing (Filamentous Seaweed)
Rhizoclonium tortuosum Kuetzing (Filamentous Seaweed)
R. riparium polyrhizum Rosenvinge (Filamentous Seaweed)
Class - Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) (more recently Phylum Bacillariophyta or Chrysophyta)
Order - Bacillariales
Suborder - Coscinodiscineae
Melosira nummuloides Agardh
M. marina
M. sulcata (Ehrenberg Kuetzing
M. moniliformis (Muller) Agardh
M. hyperborea Grunow
M. crenulate
M. subflexilis Kuetzing
M. juerghensii Agardh
Coscinodiscus radiatus Ehrenberg
C. eccentricus Ehrenberg
C. concinnus W. Smith
C. centralis Ehrenherg
C. fasciculatus O'Me
Thalassiosira decipiens (Grunow) Joergensen
T. nordenskioldii Cleve
Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Clove
Stephanopyxis appendiculata Ehrenberg
Actinoptyichus senarius Ehrenberg
Paralia sulcata (Ehrenherg) Cleve

Suborder - Biddulphineae
Biddulphia pulchella Gray
B. mohiliensis (Bailey) Grunow
B. regia (Schulze) Ostenfeld
B. aurita Lyngbye
B. alternans (Bailey) Van Heurck
Chaetoceros danicum Cleve
C. convolutum Castracane
C. compressum Lauder
C. concavicorne Mangin
C. constrictum Gran
C. laciniosum Schutt
C. diadema (Ehrenberg) Gran
C. willei Gran
C. socialis Lauder
C. teres Cleve
C. simplex Ostenfeld
C. debrilis Cleve
C. decipiens Cleve
Ditylum brightwellii (T. West) Grunow
Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve) Hendey

Suborder - Rhizoscleniineae
Laptocylindris minimus Gran
Guinardia flaccida (Castracane) Peragallo
Bactariosira fragilis Gran
Rhizosolenia styliformis Brightwell
R. gracillima Cleve
R. obtusa Benson
R. alata Brightwell
R. shrubsolei Cleve
R. setigera Brightwell
R. hebetata Bailey
R. faeroensis Ostenfeld

Suborder - Fragilariineae
Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres
Rhaphoneis amphiceros Ehrenberg
Asterionella japonica Cleve
Striatella unipunctata (Lyngbye) Agardh
Synedra pulchella Kuetzing
S. ulna (Nitzsch) Ehrenberg
S. gallionii (Bory) Ehrenbory
S. lunaris
S. radians Kuetzing
S. salina
S. undulata (Bailey) Gregory
S. affinis Kuetzinq
Thalassiothrix longissima Cleve and Grunow
Thalassionema nitzschioides Grunow
Grammatophora marina (Lyngbye) Kuetzing
G. serpentina Ehrcnbory
Rhabdonema arcuatum (Lyngbye) Kuetzing

Suborder - Achnanthineae
Achnanthas subsessilis Kuetzing
A. longipes Aqardh
Cocconeis scutellum Ehrenberg

Suborder - Naviculineae
Navicula smithii deBrebisson
N. viridis Kuetzinq
N. peregrina Kuetzinq
N. elliptica
Diploneis didyma (Lhrenberg) Clove
Stauroneis oblique
Pinnularia distans
P. viridis
Pleurosigma fasciola E., S.
P. acuminatum
P. strigilis W. Smith
P. aestuarii W. Smith
P. balticum W  Smith
P. formosum W. Smith
P. decorum W. Smith
P. angulatum (Quekett) W. Smith
P. allenuatum
P. strigosum W. smith
P. elongaturn W. Smith
P. obscurum W. Smith
Gomphonema acuminatum
G. crucigerum
Rhopalodia musculus
R. gibba (Ehrenberg) MUller
R. turgida
R. zebra
Nitzschia bilobata W. smith
N. sigma w. smith
N. closterium (Ehrenberg) W. Smith
N. scalaris
N. punctata Grunow
N. tharmatis
N. granulate Grunow
N. paradore
N. seriata Cleve
Scoliopleura tumida (deBrobisson) Rabenhorst
Brebissonia boeckii (Ehrenberg) Grunow
Epithemia musculus Kuetzing

Suborder - Surirellineae
Surirella ovalis deBrebisson
S. gemma (Ehrenberg) Kuetzing
S. pulohelle
S. moleriana

Phylum Protozoa (now Phylum Dinoflagellata or Pyrrophyta)
Subphylum - Plasmodroma
Class - Mastigophora
Subclass - Phytomastigina
Order - Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates)
Tribe - Peridinioidae
Family - Peridiniidae

Peridinium divergens Ehrenberg
Ceratium tripos (Muller)
C. fusus (Ehrenberg)
C. furca (Ehrenberg)
Gonyaulax tamarensis Lebour

Family - Dinophysidae

Dinophysis norvegica (C. & L.)

Order Chrysomonadina (now Phylum Chrysophyta)
Suborder - Euchrysomonadina
Family - Silicoflagellidae (silicoflagellates)

Distephanus speculum (Muller)
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